WALTHAM has contributed to the understanding of body weight management in the dog by:
• Establishing the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe in collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin.
• 与利物浦大学和Royal Canin合作在欧洲建立了首个宠物体重管理转介诊所。
• Developing the S.H.A.P.E.™ system to help owners recognise weight issues in their pet.
• Generating epidemiological data on the prevalence and risk factors of obesity in dogs.
• Showing that quality of life is reduced in obese dogs but improves after successful weight loss.
• Demonstrating that inflammatory markers are elevated in obese dogs, and decrease with weight loss, and investigating the pathogenesis of obesity-related diseases.
• Generating insight into the risk of hypertension associated with obesity.
• Showing that increasing dietary fibre levels improves weight loss when added to a high protein diet.
• Generating insight into the precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in dogs.
Obesity is the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat. Dogs can be defined as being overweight if their bodyweight is 15% above ideal and classed as obese if they are more than 30% above their ideal weight. Estimates of the prevalence of obesity and being overweight are in the range of 24–59% for dogs (Edney and Smith 1986; McGreevy et al. 2005; Holmes et al. 2007; Courcier et al. 2010).
肥胖是脂肪在体内的堆积。如果狗的体重比理想体重超出15%，则可被视为超重，如果超过30%则为肥胖。据估计，24-59%的狗肥胖或超重（Edney and Smith 1986; McGreevy et al. 2005; Holmes et al. 2007; Courcier et al. 2010）。
Being overweight and obese are consequences of energy intake exceeding requirement at some stage in the dog’s life. Older dogs are at increased risk of obesity, as are females compared with males, neutered dogs (compared with entire animals), and dogs receiving less exercise (Holmes et al. 2007). Owners older than 55 years of age are also at a greater risk of owning an obese dog (Holmes et al. 2007). Owner attitudes to their pet also play a role, since the owners of overweight dogs have a tendency to anthropomorphise their pet and show affection through feeding (McCune et al. 2008).
超重和肥胖是狗的一生中某阶段能量摄入超过需求的结果。老龄犬肥胖的风险增加，雌性与雄性相比更容易肥胖，绝育的狗（与未绝育的动物相比）以及运动较少的狗也容易体重超标（Holmes et al. 2007）。如果饲主年龄在55岁以上，那么他或她的狗也更容易超重（Holmes et al. 2007）。饲主对宠物的态度也有一定作用，因为体重超标的狗的主人往往将宠物当人一样看待，在喂食时会显示出他们的喜爱之情（(McCune et al. 2008）。
Maintaining a healthy body weight is important for the dog’s health. Obese dogs have a reduced lifespan (Kealy et al. 2002) and even moderately overweight dogs are at risk of the early onset of chronic health problems (Laflamme 2012). Health risks associated with overweight/obesity in dogs include osteoarthritis (Marshall et al. 2009), hypertension (Montoya et al. 2006), and cancer (Perez Alenza et al. 1998; 2000). Obesity also reduces the dog’s quality of life (German et al. 2012).
维持健康的体重对保障狗的健康至为重要。肥胖的狗寿命更短（Kealy et al. 2002），甚至于体重稍微超标的狗也容易较早患上慢性疾病（Laflamme 2012）。超重/肥胖带来的健康风险包括骨关节炎（Marshall et al. 2009）、高血压（Montoya et al. 2006）和癌症（(Perez Alenza et al. 1998; 2000）。肥胖也会降低狗的生活质量（German et al. 2012）。
Dogs are scavengers by nature and given free access to food many will overeat and gain weight. This means that providing pet dogs with the appropriate amount of food is vital if they are to maintain a healthy body weight. Common feeding practices can result in overfeeding. Many owners use measuring cups to guide how much extruded dry kibbled food to feed their pet. However, measuring cups have been shown to be imprecise and inaccurate, resulting in errors that, over time, could contribute to insidious weight gain and the failure of weight management programmes (German et al. 2011). It is vital to understand how dogs should best be fed to support the maintenance of a healthy body weight: how much to feed the dog, when to feed it and how.
狗从天性上讲是食腐动物，如果不限制它们进食，那么很多狗会吃得过多，从而变胖。这意味着如果要让宠物狗维持健康的体重，为它们提供恰当数量的食物是至关重要的。一些常见的喂食行为常常会导致狗吃的太多。许多饲主利用量杯来确定喂给宠物多少干狗粮。但是，我们已经发现量杯是不准确有误差的，长此以往，会导致不明原因的体重增加，也会导致体重管理计划失败（German et al. 2011）。重要的是要理解采取哪种最佳方式喂狗以维持健康体重：给狗喂多少狗粮，何时喂，如何喂。
Why WALTHAM is Interested
Obesity is the most common form of malnutrition that affects pets. Obese pets are not healthy pets. In order to provide diets optimised for the treatment of obesity and maintenance of a healthy body weight (prevention of obesity), it is vital to fully understand how much to feed dogs, what to feed, and how to feed it. Research in this area is ongoing.
Together with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, WALTHAM established the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe in 2003.
An easy-to-use algorithm-based system was developed to help owners recognise weight issues in their pet. The epidemiology of obesity was studied to better understand the risk factors, along with the role of inflammatory markers and risk for hypertension. The effect of fibre on satiety and weight loss was also investigated.
Capability Development (Clinic)
In collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, WALTHAM established the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe
The Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic at the University of Liverpool’s Small Animal Hospital, UK, was established in 2003. It is the first pet weight management referral clinic in Europe and was set up to address the direct health concerns linked to obesity and improve understanding of pet obesity.
Veterinarians from any general practice in the UK can refer overweight dogs to the clinic. The patients receive a thorough medical examination, and are then given a specific dietary plan and exercise regimen to follow over subsequent weeks.
Whilst treating overweight dogs, the clinic compiles a large amount of data about the obesity problem in pets. This information is used to improve the understanding of the causes of obesity in pets, enabling the refinement of methods of treatment and prevention. With sufficient cases, it will be possible to establish whether certain breeds have a higher risk of obesity. The link between obesity and disease is under investigation, with the aim of understanding how such diseases arise so that appropriate treatment and prevention strategies can be recommended.
在治疗超重的狗时，诊所收集了大量关于宠物肥胖问题的数据。这一信息被用来增进对宠物肥胖原因的认识，有助于人们改进治疗方法和预防手段。累积足够的案例后，诊所将能够确定是否某些特定种类的狗更容易患上肥胖。诊所正在研究肥胖和疾病之间的关联，目的是认识这些与肥胖相关的疾病是如何出现的，从而推荐适当的治疗和预防策略。Capability Development (S.H.A.P.E™)
The S.H.A.P.E.™ system helps owners recognise weight issues in their pet
Existing body condition scoring charts for dogs (Laflamme 1997; Mawby et al. 2004) require training and a degree of expertise, making them less useful for pet owners to use themselves.
现有的狗体况得分表（Laflamme 1997；Mawby et al. 2004）需要饲主参加培训和具备一定程度的专业知识，因此对于饲主而言缺乏实用性。
The S.H.A.P.E.™ (Size, Health And Physical Evaluation) system was designed with pet owners in mind, and was developed and validated in collaboration with the University of Liverpool (Figure 1). It uses similar visual and palpable characteristics as the previous scoring systems, but provides a series of questions prompting the owner to examine their pet in a systematic and sequential manner. This allows the owner to assess the fat covering the ribs, and directs them to select the most appropriate body condition score (from 7 categories: A, underweight; to G, obese).
Figure 1: WALTHAM S.H.A.P.E.™ guide for dogs
The S.H.A.P.E.™ system was validated in 71 client-owned dogs (German et al. 2006) referred to University of Liverpool clinics. The owners scored their pet using the S.H.A.P.E.™ system alongside assessors experienced using S.H.A.P.E.™ Dogs also underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to determine the amount of body fat. The study showed that the scoring system was reliable in the hands of experienced operators, and that correlation was good between experienced operators and scores determined independently by the owners who had no prior experience of body condition scoring. The S.H.A.P.E.™ system also correlated well with body fat mass calculated by DXA. (Figure 2)
Figure 2: Association between estimated percentage of body fat, determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and body condition score determined by the S.H.A.P.E.™ system (German et al. 2006). Correlation between body fat measured by DXA and S.H.A.P.E.™ score, P
图2：估算的体脂率与双能X线骨密度仪（DXA）测定值及S.H.A.P.E™系统体况评分之间的关系（German et al. 2006）。DXA测定的体脂率和S.H.A.P.E™得分之间的接近度，P<0.0001。S代表该模型的标准差估值。R2代表测定系数，以表明该模型能够解释多少响应变量。通过简单的线性回归分析数据。
This study shows that the S.H.A.P.E.™ system is a reliable and useful way for owners to monitor their pet’s body condition.
About half of all dogs are overweight or obese, especially older dogs, neutered dogs, and female dogs
It is essential to understand how many dogs in the population are obese, and what the risk factors for this are. WALTHAM has contributed to the body of epidemiological data on canine obesity.
A 6-month survey of 8268 dogs visiting 11 UK veterinary practices in 1983 found that 21% were obese and 3% were grossly obese (Edney and Smith 1986). Labradors were the breed most likely to become obese, followed by Cairn terriers, cocker spaniels, long haired Dachshunds, Shetland sheepdogs, basset hounds, cavalier King Charles spaniels, and beagles (Edney and Smith 1986). Neutering was found to approximately double the risk of obesity (Edney and Smith 1986). This study used a 5-point scale to categorise body condition.
1983年对到访过英国11家开业兽医院的8268只狗进行了为期六个月的调查，发现其中21%的狗肥胖，3%严重肥胖（Edney & Smith 1986）。拉布拉多犬是最可能变胖的种类，紧随其后的是凯恩梗、可卡犬、长毛达克斯猎犬、喜乐蒂牧羊犬、巴吉度猎犬、骑士查理王猎犬和比格犬（Edney and Smith 1986）。绝育的狗变肥胖的概率翻倍（Edney and Smith 1986）。这一研究利用了5分制评分来区分体况。
Subsequently, the validated 7-point S.H.A.P.E.™ scale was used to assess body condition and a questionnaire was designed to evaluate risk factors for obesity in 399 dogs attending an equestrian event (Holmes et al. 2007). The study found that 37% of dogs were overweight and 15% were obese (Holmes et al. 2007). When owners were asked if they thought their dog was overweight, only 32% of those with overweight or obese dogs agreed (Holmes et al. 2007). Owners who were overweight themselves owned 74% of the overweight/obese dogs (P=0.008) (Holmes et al. 2007). Body condition score was significantly associated with exercise level, and was higher in older dogs (7.5–9.9 years), female dogs, neutered dogs, and in those with older owners (aged >55 years) (Holmes et al. 2007). No association with obesity was found for breed size, owner activity level, feeding snacks and treats, or the number of hours the dog was left alone each day (Holmes et al. 2007).
随后，针对399只参加马术活动的狗，利用经验证的S.H.A.P.E.™7分制评分法来评估体况，并制作了问卷调查表以评价肥胖的风险因素（Holmes et al. 2007）。这项研究发现37%的狗超重，15%肥胖（Holmes et al. 2007）。当问到饲主他们是否想过他们的狗超重时，只有32%拥有超重或肥胖宠物狗的人表示同意（Holmes et al. 2007）。其中74%超重或肥胖的狗（P=0.008）的饲主本身便体重超标（Holmes et al. 2007）。体况得分与运动水平密切相关，老龄犬（7.5-9.9岁）、雌性狗、绝育的狗和饲主年龄偏大（55岁以上）的狗分数较高（Holmes et al. 2007）。并没有发现肥胖与犬种、体型、饲主活动水平、是否喂零食或者每天狗被单独留在家的时间相关。
These studies provide insight into the risk factors for obesity in dogs. The most recent data suggest that about half of all dogs are overweight or obese (Holmes et al. 2007).
这些研究有助于人们认识狗肥胖问题的风险因素。最近的数据显示超过半数的狗都超重或肥胖（Holmes et al. 2007）。
Discovery (Quality of Life)
Quality of life is reduced in obese dogs but improves after successful weight loss
A study in collaboration with the University of Liverpool, the University of Glasgow, and Royal Canin used a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life in obese dogs (German et al. 2012).
威豪与利物浦大学、格拉斯哥大学和Royal Canin开展研究合作，利用问卷调查确定肥胖狗与健康相关的生活质量（German et al. 2012）。
A total of 50 obese dogs were recruited at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic (German et al. 2012). The owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire, before and after weight loss. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed into scores (scale 0–6) corresponding to each of four domains: vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety, and pain. Successful weight loss was achieved by 30 of the dogs.
Royal Canin体重管理诊所总共召集了50只肥胖狗（German et al. 2012）。要求饲主在狗减肥前后填写一份经过验证的标准问卷调查表，然后将问卷调查的答案转化为分数（0-6分），对四个方面打分：活力、情绪困扰、焦虑和身体不适。其中30只狗成功减重。
Lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores were found for dogs failing to complete their weight loss programme compared with those successfully losing weight (P=0.03 for both) (German et al. 2012). Successful weight loss (30 dogs) was associated with increased vitality scores (P<0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P<0.001) and pain (P<0.001); but there was no change in anxiety (P=0.09) (German et al. 2012). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (rp 0.43, P=0.02) and percentage body fat loss (rp 0.39, P=0.03) (Figure 3) (German et al. 2012).
与成功减重的狗（P=0.03）相比，无法成功完成减肥计划的狗（P=0.03）往往活力分数较低，情绪困扰分数更高（German et al. 2012）。减重成功（30只狗）与活力分数增加（P<0.001）和情绪困扰（P<0.001）及身体不适（P<0.001）得分降低有关联；但是焦虑（P=0.09）得分无变化（German et al. 2012）。活力得分的变化与减重百分比（rp 0.43, P=0.02）以及体脂肪减轻的百分比（rp 0.39, P=0.03）成正比（图3）（German et al. 2012）。
Figure 3: Health-related quality of life before and after weight loss in 30 obese client-owned dogs (German et al. 2012). Domains assessed were vitality (a), emotional disturbance (b), anxiety (c), and pain (d), whereby improved quality of life manifests as increased vitality score, and decreased emotional disturbance, anxiety, and pain scores. The boxes depict median (horizontal line) and inter-quartile range (top and bottom of box), the vertical lines show the 10th and 90th percentiles, and outliers are shown as separate points. Weight loss was associated with improved vitality, decreased emotional disturbance, and decreased pain score (P
图3:30只顾客拥有的肥胖狗减重前后健康相关的生活质量情况（German et al. 2012）。评估内容包括活力（a）、情绪困扰（b）、焦虑（c）和身体不适（d）。生活质量的改善显示为活力得分提高，情绪困扰、焦虑和身体不适得分降低。箱型描绘的是平均值（水平线）和四分位差（箱型上下端），虚线显示的是第10百分位和第90百分位，异常值则标记为单独的几点。减重与活力得分增加，情绪困扰和身体不适得分降低相关（各分数的P<0.001）。
These data show that the health-related quality of life of obese dogs improves when they successfully lose weight.
Inflammatory markers are elevated in obese dogs, and decrease with weight loss
Human obesity is characterised by derangements in inflammatory adipokine production from adipocytes, but it was unclear if obese dogs were similarly affected.
In a study in collaboration with the University of Liverpool, the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain, and Royal Canin, inflammatory adipokines and insulin sensitivity were assessed before and after weight loss in 26 obese dogs referred to the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic (German et al. 2009).
威豪与利物浦大学、西班牙巴塞罗那Autònoma大学及Royal Canin合作研究，对26只被送往Royal Canin体重管理诊所的狗在减重前后的促炎脂肪因子与胰岛素敏感性进行了评估（German et al. 2009）。
Weight loss led to a significant decrease in plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha concentrations (P=0.002) (German et al. 2009). Before weight loss, plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha was above the detectable limits of the assay in 11 (42%) of the dogs; after weight loss, only 3 dogs (12%) had these high levels (P=0.016) (German et al. 2009). Weight loss led to significant decreases in the inflammatory markers haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (Figure 4)(German et al. 2009).
体重减轻导致血液肿瘤坏死因子-α浓度（P=0.002）显著减少（German et al. 2009）。在体重减轻之前，11只狗（42%）的血液肿瘤坏死因子-α高出检测限；减重之后，只有3只狗（12%）的血液肿瘤坏死因子-α（P=0.016）达到了之前的高水平（German et al. 2009）。体重减轻使得炎症指标结合珠蛋白和C反应蛋白的大幅降低（图4）（German et al. 2009）。
The Feline Body Mass Index is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4: Plasma CRP and haptoglobin decreased significantly after weight loss (German et al. 2009). The boxes depict median (horizontal line) and interquartile range (top and bottom of box), the vertical lines show range, and outliers are shown as separate points
图4：减重后血液中的CRP和结合珠蛋白大幅减少（German et al. 2009）。箱型描绘的是中值（水平线）和四分位差（箱型上下端），虚线显示的是范围，异常值以单独的点标出。
Insulin resistance was found to be correlated with degree of adiposity, and insulin sensitivity improved upon weight loss (German et al. 2009).
胰岛素抵抗作用与肥胖的严重程度相符，胰岛素敏感度则随着体重的减轻而增强（German et al. 2009）
As in humans, a concurrent decrease in tumour necrosis factor-alpha and adipose tissue mass in dogs suggests a role for this adipokine in insulin resistance of obesity. These data contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology and health risks of obesity, and suggest that weight loss may be beneficial for the dog’s health.
Canine adipocytes are highly responsive to inflammatory mediators with the induction of major increases in the production of inflammation-related adipokines
A study conducted in collaboration with the University of Liverpool showed that canine adipocytes express and secrete key adipokines. Canine adipocytes are highly responsive to inflammatory mediators, especially lipopolysaccharide, with the induction of major increases in the production of inflammation-related adipokines (Ryan et al. 2010). The inflammatory mediators lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor α had major stimulatory effects on the expression and secretion of interleukin-6, MCP-1 and tumour necrosis factor α. Inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of obesity-associated diseases in the dog.
威豪与利物浦大学合作研究发现，狗的脂肪细胞会表达和分泌关键的脂肪因子。狗的脂肪组织对性炎介质的反应灵敏，特别是脂多糖，诱发生成大量与炎症相关的脂肪因子（Ryan et al. 2010）。炎性介质脂多糖和肿瘤坏死因子-α对白细胞介质-6、MCP-1和肿瘤坏死因子-α的表达和分泌有着主要的刺激作用。炎症对于了解狗的肥胖相关疾病的病理生理学起到了一定作用。
The induction of 11β-HSD-1 expression may have implications for the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated diseases in the dog
The expression and activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD-1), which reactivates inert cortisone into cortisol, is increased in white adipose tissue in obese humans, and may contribute to the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity. The extent to which 11β-HSD-1 contributes to adipose tissue function in dogs was unknown.
A study was undertaken, in collaboration with the University of Liverpool, to examine 11β-HSD-1 gene expression and its regulation by proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory agents in canine adipocytes (Ryan et al. 2011). Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression of 11β-HSD-1 in canine adipose tissue and canine adipocytes differentiated in culture. Tissue was provided by dogs that had been euthanised by an animal shelter for reasons unrelated to the study.
威豪与利物浦大学合作开展研究，通过狗脂肪组织的促炎和抗炎剂探讨了11β-HSD-1基因表达及其规则（Ryan et al. 2011）。利用实时PCR检查11β-HSD-1在狗脂肪组织以及通过培养生成的变异脂肪组织中的表达。实验所用组织来自于已被某间动物收容所执行安乐死的狗，安乐死的原因与本项研究并不相关。
The mRNA encoding 11β-HSD-1 was identified in all the major white adipose tissue depots in dogs and also in liver, kidney, and spleen (Ryan et al. 2011). The inflammatory mediators lipopolysaccharide and tumour necrosis factor α had a main stimulatory effect on 11β-HSD-1 gene expression in canine subcutaneous adipocytes, but IL-6 had no significant effect (Ryan et al. 2011).
在狗的所有白色脂肪组织中都找到了11β-HSD-1基因的mRNA编码，肝脏、肾脏和脾脏中也找到了这种基因（Ryan et al. 2011）。炎性介质脂多糖和肿瘤坏死因子-α对于狗皮下脂肪的11β-HSD-1基因表达有着主要的刺激作用，但是IL-6则影响不大（Ryan et al. 2011）。
This study suggests that induction of 11β-HSD-1 expression, by the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor α and by lipopolysaccharide may have implications for the pathogenesis of obesity and its associated diseases in the dog.
Insight Generation (Hypertension)
Body condition score is signiﬁcantly correlated with systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure
This study was conducted in collaboration with the Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University, Spain, and examined the association between weight status and hypertension in otherwise healthy dogs.
威豪与西班牙Las Palmas de Gran Canaria大学合作，研究了狗的体重状况与高血压之间的联系，这些狗除了高血压外没有其他健康问题。
A total of 122 client-owned dogs from Spanish urban households were recruited and evaluated during routine veterinary visits (Montoya et al. 2006). Body condition score was assessed using a 9-point scale, and blood pressure measured in triplicate by oscillometry with the cuff placed around the base of the dog’s tail or hind leg. Hypertension was deﬁned as systolic ≥150 mmHg and diastolic ≥95 mmHg.
通过定期兽医探访召集和评估了西班牙城市居民喂养的122只狗（Montoya et al. 2006）。利用九分制评估了体况得分，利用示波测量法将布袖缠在狗的尾巴或后退根部测定了血压，测量结果一式三份。收缩压≥150 mmHg，舒张压≥95 mmHg则被认定为高血压。
The body condition scores of the dogs were 4 (underweight, n=14 dogs), 5 (ideal, n=28), 6 (overweight, n=17), 7 (heavy, n=26), 8 (obese, n=27), and 9 (grossly obese, n=10) (Montoya et al. 2006; Laflamme 1997).
狗的体况得分是4（过轻，n=14只狗），5（理想体重，n=28），6（超重，n=17）， 7（过重，n=6）,8（肥胖，n=27）和9（严重肥胖，n=10）（Montoya et al. 2006; Laflamme 1997）。
There were signiﬁcant correlations between body condition score and systolic pressure (r 0.227, P=0.012), diastolic pressure (r 0.494, P<0.001), and mean arterial pressure (r 0.461, P<0.001) (Figure 5) (Montoya et al. 2006).
体况得分与收缩压（r 0.227， P=0.012）、舒张压（r 0.494，P<0.001）和动脉血压均值（r 0.461，P<0.001）之间有显著的关联（图5）（Montoya et al. 2006）。
Figure 5: Relationship between body condition score and blood pressure measures in dogs (Montoya et al. 2006). Values are mean ± SD. Data assessed using linear regression. Correlation between body condition score determined by Laﬂamme method and systolic blood pressure determined by oscillometry (r = 0.227, P=0.012) (A). Correlation between diastolic blood pressure and body condition (r = 0.494, P<0.001) (B). Correlation between body condition score and mean arterial pressure (r = 0.461, P<0.001) (C)
图5：狗的体况得分与血压测值之间的关系（Montoya et al. 2006）。数值为中值± SD。利用线性回归对数据进行评估。通过Laﬂamme法测定的体况得分与通过示波测量法测定的收缩压（r = 0.227，P=0.012）之间的关系（A）。舒张压与体况之间的关系（r = 0.494，P<0.001）（B）。体况得分与平均动脉压之间的关系（r = 0.461， P<0.001）（C）。
There was also a signiﬁcant correlation between body condition score and the prevalence of hypertension (r 0.271, P<0.001) (Montoya et al. 2006).
体况得分与高血压的流行程度（r 0.271， P<0.001）之间也有重要联系（Montoya et al. 2006）。
The contribution of body condition score to blood pressure variance was relatively small, however, accounting for 5.2% (systolic), 24.4% (diastolic), and 21.2% (mean arterial pressure) of the variability (Montoya et al. 2006). These associations remained signiﬁcant when controlling for breed, age, sex, and neuter status, although the correlation between body condition score and systolic blood pressure was not signiﬁcant when controlled for size (Montoya et al. 2006).
不过，体况得分对血压变化的作用则相对较小，能导致5.2%（收缩压）、24.4%（舒张压）和21.2%（平均动脉压）的变率（Montoya et al. 2006）。控制犬种、犬龄、性别和绝育情况时，这些联系依然较为显著，不过当体型受控时体况得分与收缩压之间的联系便不太明显（Montoya et al. 2006）。
These data suggest that weight status may be a contributory factor in secondary hypertension.
Increasing dietary fibre levels improves weight loss when added to a high protein diet
Fibre is often advocated as a dietary bulking agent to reduce hunger during weight reduction programmes, although there has been some debate about its effectiveness in this regard.
Two controlled studies at WALTHAM used diets with different levels and types of fibre, fed at the same restricted energy intake to 6 dogs for 12 days in a latin square design (Butterwick et al. 1994, Butterwick and Markwell 1997). Satiety was measured by offering the dogs a challenge meal and measuring their food intake. This was done on two occasions in each study, with the challenge meal offered for a period of 15 minutes exactly 3 hours after the main meal. The studies found there was no significant effect of fibre type or fibre level (Butterwick et al. 1994; Butterwick and Markwell 1997) on the amount of food eaten in the challenge meal. These studies showed that the addition of moderate, or even high, levels of either soluble or insoluble fibre to a commercial low calorie diet had no beneficial effects on satiety when fed to dogs at an energy intake compatible with weight reduction (Butterwick et al. 1994, Butterwick and Markwell 1997).
威豪开展的两项受控研究利用含有不同水平和类型的纤维的膳食，通过拉丁方设计对6只狗喂食了这种食品，能量摄入限制量相同，时间为12天（Butterwick et al. 1994, Butterwick & Markwell 1997）。给予狗一次挑战餐并测定食物的摄入量来衡量饱腹感，每项研究进行了两次，在进食主餐3个小时后喂给狗这种挑战餐，进食时间限定为15分钟。研究发现纤维类型或纤维水平对于挑战餐的进食数量并没有显著作用（Butterwick et al. 1994; Butterwick & Markwell 1997）。研究说明在低热量膳食中添加适量甚至高水平的可溶或不可溶纤维并不有助于增加饱腹感，喂食给狗的这些食物的能量摄入量与减重目标相符（Butterwick et al. 1994, Butterwick & Markwell 1997）。
Together, these studies suggest that fibre might not affect satiety. However, the weight of literature contradicts this, and fibre has been shown to be satiating when included in a high protein diet (Weber et al. 2007). Differences in the findings of studies in this area might be attributable to study design and methodology, diet format and formulation, dog population, and methodology used to calculate dietary energy content.
总的来说，这些研究说明纤维也许不会影响饱腹感。但是，众多文献显示并非如此，而把纤维添加在高蛋白饮食中时它能让人感到吃饱（Weber et al. 2007）。此领域研究结果的差异也许是由于研究设计和方法、膳食形式和配方、狗的数量、计算膳食能量含量的方法有所不同。
In a subsequent study in collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, the effect of a high fibre diet on weight loss was investigated. A high protein diet was formulated with either high or moderate levels of fibre, and fed to 42 client-owned dogs with naturally-occurring obesity referred to the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic (German et al. 2010). Overall, weight loss was greater on the high-fibre diet (median 32%) compared with the moderate fibre diet (median 20%, P=0.016) (German et al. 2010). The rate of weight loss was also faster (1% versus 0.7% per week, P=0.028 Figure 6), and the fat mass loss was greater (58% versus 37%, P=0.002) for the high-fibre diet compared with the moderate fibre diet (German et al. 2010).
在随后与利物浦大学和Royal Canin联合开展的研究中，探讨了减重过程中高纤维膳食的作用。高蛋白膳食的配方中加入高水平或适量的纤维，喂食给42只转诊至Royal Canin体重管理中心的狗（顾客所有），这些狗有着自然产生的肥胖问题（German et al. 2010）。总体而言，与吃适量纤维膳食的狗（平均20%，P=0.016）相比，吃高纤维膳食的狗减去的体重更多（平均32%）（German et al. 2010），减重的速度也更高（每周1%与每周0.7%，P=0.028，图6），脂肪量减少更多（58%与37%，P=0.002）（German et al. 2010）。
Figure 6: Weight loss in dogs fed a high protein diet with either moderate (n=27, HPMF) or high (n=15, HPHF) levels of dietary fibre (German et al. 2010). The boxes depict median (horizontal line) and inter-quartile range (top and bottom of box), with vertical lines showing range and outliers shown as separate points
图6：狗的体重减轻情况：在高蛋白膳食中添加适量（n=27, HPMF）与高（n=15, HPHF）水平的膳食纤维（German et al. 2010）。箱型描绘的是中值（水平线）和四分位差（箱型上下端），虚线显示的是范围，异常值以单独的点标示。
This study shows that weight loss and body composition changes are better with a high-protein high-fibre diet rather than one formulated to include moderate levels of fibre (German et al. 2010).
Insight Generation (DXA)
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry has excellent precision for assessing body composition in dogs
This study was conducted in collaboration with the University of Liverpool and Royal Canin, and aimed to validate the precision of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for measuring body composition in dogs.
Body composition was assessed repeatedly in 10 adult canine cadavers by DXA (Raffan et al. 2006). The subjects (obtained as a consequence of fatal natural illness) represented a variety of different breeds, ages, and genders. The study used cadavers to avoid the ethical concerns of performing repeated (experimental) scans in healthy live animals. The scanning procedures were completed within 1 hour of death, and each subject was scanned 6 times, alternating between dorsal and lateral recumbency. This represented the maximum number of scans feasible to perform before the onset of rigor mortis.
通过DXA反复评定了10只成年狗的尸体的体脂比例（Raffan et al. 2006）。受验的尸体（自然疾病致死）代表了各种不同的犬种、犬龄和性别。该研究利用这些尸体，避免引发在健康的活体动物身上反复（实验性）扫描所引发的道德争议。对尸体的扫描程序需时1小时，每具受验尸体要经过6次扫描，扫描在背卧位和侧卧位两个位置之间交替进行。这是出现尸僵之前能够进行的最多次数的扫描。
The precision of body composition analysis by DXA was excellent, although it was marginally better in dorsal recumbency than in lateral recumbency, and differed slightly between operators.
The study showed that DXA scanning is a precise method of body composition analysis in dogs (Raffan et al. 2006). The precision obtained supports the use of sequential scans to follow changes in body composition in clinical patients. However, differences were demonstrated between both body positions and operators, so the sequential use of DXA scans in a single patient requires that protocols are standardised as far as possible. Dorsal positioning is recommended because this is what is used in humans, and it lends itself to better compartmental analysis for the future.
研究说明DXA扫描是准确分析狗的体脂比例的方法（Raffan et al. 2006）。这种精确性支持利用连续扫描跟踪临床中体脂比例的变化。但是，体位和操作员的不同也会造成差异，因此当对某一位病患连续使用DXA扫描时，要求尽可能实现方案的标准化。推荐采取背卧位，因为这是人类在接受检查时所用的姿势，也有利于未来开展更好的室分析。